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Any new learning that they cannot make sense of will fall out of their head. Note: This guide will not address the teaching of decimals and decimal places as it is a separate area of the national curriculum covered in the article on teaching decimals KS2. Teaching place value at KS2: the theory The theory of place value, its utility and pedagogical approaches do not change throughout the year groups.
Rather, the numbers that students are expected to master increases and the comparisons between the numbers become more sophisticated. Some teachers may remember teaching place value or indeed being taught place value by their teachers and the first position being referred to as a unit.
This caused some issues when students were then looking at measurements and teachers would remind pupils not to forget the units in the answer, an instruction which was often met with a bewildered look. This brings me to the next part I wish to bring to your attention and a key part that is often missing from the conversation of place value : the difference between number, digit and numeral.
A number is a count or measurement of something that is quantifiable. We quantify the count or measurement by using numerals; numerals can be written using symbols we call digits. There are 10 digits in our number system: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. Numerals can also be written using letters to create words e.
By reinforcing that the digits are and that only one digit can go into each place value, we reinforce the notion that there can only be one digit for each place value, a key aspect of place value theory. Download Now Best place value manipulatives When looking at place value, going from concrete to pictorial to abstract is important. The maths manipulatives shown below should be staples of every classroom from Early Years to Year 6.
Dienes for place value Dienes in base 10 and place value counters make up the most common manipulatives used for teaching this concept. Dienes showing 1, 10, and Dienes are what I would suggest working with first as there is a size and proportional element showing the difference or relationship between the values. This would be far easier for a younger learner to grasp than a different colour counter.
The downside to the dienes is that they only go to 1,, so as soon as you are required to work with numbers in the tens of thousands, there are no dienes to support this. It is important that before students start working in base 10, they are also introduced to working with counters so they can easily transition between the two resources.
A further advantage of the dienes is that it is easy to see the equality between each piece. From a young age, students can see that 10 of the ones blocks are equal to 1 of the tens blocks and so on. Understanding this equivalence is key to understanding place value and to be able to perform more complex mathematics. Place value counters Place value counters and grids, on the other hand, are less concrete in that there is no physical difference between the counters, so the conceptual understanding developed with dienes must lead into using them for understanding to be transferred.
Ultimately, the end goal of all these manipulatives is for children to stop relying on them completely, moving onto using just a place value grid and then their own intuitive understanding; teachers will need to plan for this while taking individual needs into account. Place value Year 3 In the national curriculum for maths in England, for each area of maths outlined there is both a statutory requirement and a non-statutory requirement. Place value Year 3 statutory requirements Count from 0 in multiples of 4, 8, 50 and ; find 10 or more or less than a given number; Recognise the place value of each digit in a 3-digit number s, 10s, 1s ; Compare and order numbers up to 1,; Identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations; Read and write numbers up to 1, in numerals and in words; Solve number problems and practical problems involving these ideas.
Place value activities and lesson ideas for Year 3 pupils In Year 3 place value, students are expected to become familiar with numbers up to 1, They should explore these numbers using base 10 dienes blocks to create and recognise numbers. Teachers should deliberately plan to create errors when modelling.
For example, placing 11 ones counters into a place value chart, making that error explicit and getting the students to explain why this is not allowed. This should be the cornerstone of any modelling when it comes to place value. Build up pupil confidence by getting them to represent two-digit numbers using dienes blocks and a place value chart. Show them how to represent 35, for example, and model this with dienes.
Note that the way you arrange the dienes can be helpful. Here the ones are arranged in a familiar pattern 5 on a dice which will help students to see that there are indeed 5 five there without having to count each block individually. Once you are confident that students can do two-digit numbers, repeat the process but with three-digit numbers.
It is also important that you reverse the process. Instead of only asking students to represent a number with the dienes, show dienes and ask students to explain which digit is being represented, the value of that digit and then the number that the digits represent. For example, this could be shown on the board, with the teacher then expertly modelling their thinking aloud.
That means the digit represented in this value is 9 and because it is in the ones value means that it represents the number 9. In the tens value, there are 3 blocks. This gives me the digit 3. Because it is in tens value, it represents the number So far I have the digits 3 and 9; which represent the numbers 30 and 9. Together this is There are also blocks in my hundreds value. I have 4 blocks there. This would represent the digit 4.
As it is in the hundreds value, it represents the number I have , 30 and 9. Together this makes Figure 2 shows an example of vertical partitioning. In this example, different properties of an item are stored in different partitions. One partition holds data that is accessed more frequently, including product name, description, and price.
Another partition holds inventory data: the stock count and last-ordered date. Figure 2 - Vertically partitioning data by its pattern of use. In this example, the application regularly queries the product name, description, and price when displaying the product details to customers. Stock count and last- ordered date are held in a separate partition because these two items are commonly used together. Other advantages of vertical partitioning: Relatively slow-moving data product name, description, and price can be separated from the more dynamic data stock level and last ordered date.
Slow moving data is a good candidate for an application to cache in memory. Sensitive data can be stored in a separate partition with additional security controls. Vertical partitioning can reduce the amount of concurrent access that's needed. Vertical partitioning operates at the entity level within a data store, partially normalizing an entity to break it down from a wide item to a set of narrow items. It is ideally suited for column-oriented data stores such as HBase and Cassandra.
If the data in a collection of columns is unlikely to change, you can also consider using column stores in SQL Server. Functional partitioning When it's possible to identify a bounded context for each distinct business area in an application, functional partitioning is a way to improve isolation and data access performance.
Another common use for functional partitioning is to separate read-write data from read-only data. Figure 3 shows an overview of functional partitioning where inventory data is separated from customer data. Figure 3 - Functionally partitioning data by bounded context or subdomain. This partitioning strategy can help reduce data access contention across different parts of a system.
Designing partitions for scalability It's vital to consider size and workload for each partition and balance them so that data is distributed to achieve maximum scalability. However, you must also partition the data so that it does not exceed the scaling limits of a single partition store. Follow these steps when designing partitions for scalability: Analyze the application to understand the data access patterns, such as the size of the result set returned by each query, the frequency of access, the inherent latency, and the server-side compute processing requirements.
In many cases, a few major entities will demand most of the processing resources. Use this analysis to determine the current and future scalability targets, such as data size and workload. Then distribute the data across the partitions to meet the scalability target. For horizontal partitioning, choosing the right shard key is important to make sure distribution is even.
For more information, see the sharding pattern. Make sure each partition has enough resources to handle the scalability requirements, in terms of data size and throughput. Depending on the data store, there might be a limit on the amount of storage space, processing power, or network bandwidth per partition. If the requirements are likely to exceed these limits, you might need to refine your partitioning strategy or split data out further, possibly combining two or more strategies.
Monitor the system to verify that data is distributed as expected and that the partitions can handle the load. Actual usage does not always match what an analysis predicts. If so, it might be possible to rebalance the partitions, or else redesign some parts of the system to gain the required balance. Some cloud environments allocate resources in terms of infrastructure boundaries.
Ensure that the limits of your selected boundary provide enough room for any anticipated growth in the volume of data, in terms of data storage, processing power, and bandwidth. For example, if you use Azure table storage, there is a limit to the volume of requests that can be handled by a single partition in a particular period of time. For more information, see Azure storage scalability and performance targets. A busy shard might require more resources than a single partition can handle.
If so, the shard might need to be repartitioned to spread the load. If the total size or throughput of these tables exceeds the capacity of a storage account, you might need to create additional storage accounts and spread the tables across these accounts. Designing partitions for query performance Query performance can often be boosted by using smaller data sets and by running parallel queries. Each partition should contain a small proportion of the entire data set. This reduction in volume can improve the performance of queries.
However, partitioning is not an alternative for designing and configuring a database appropriately. For example, make sure that you have the necessary indexes in place. Follow these steps when designing partitions for query performance: Examine the application requirements and performance: Use business requirements to determine the critical queries that must always perform quickly.
Monitor the system to identify any queries that perform slowly. Find which queries are performed most frequently. Even if a single query has a minimal cost, the cumulative resource consumption could be significant. Partition the data that is causing slow performance: Limit the size of each partition so that the query response time is within target. If you use horizontal partitioning, design the shard key so that the application can easily select the right partition.
This prevents the query from having to scan through every partition. Consider the location of a partition. If possible, try to keep data in partitions that are geographically close to the applications and users that access it.
If an entity has throughput and query performance requirements, use functional partitioning based on that entity. If this still doesn't satisfy the requirements, apply horizontal partitioning as well. In most cases, a single partitioning strategy will suffice, but in some cases it is more efficient to combine both strategies. Consider running queries in parallel across partitions to improve performance. Designing partitions for availability Partitioning data can improve the availability of applications by ensuring that the entire dataset does not constitute a single point of failure and that individual subsets of the dataset can be managed independently.
Consider the following factors that affect availability: How critical the data is to business operations. Identify which data is critical business information, such as transactions, and which data is less critical operational data, such as log files. Consider storing critical data in highly available partitions with an appropriate backup plan.
Establish separate management and monitoring procedures for the different datasets. Place data that has the same level of criticality in the same partition so that it can be backed up together at an appropriate frequency. For example, partitions that hold transaction data might need to be backed up more frequently than partitions that hold logging or trace information. How individual partitions can be managed. Designing partitions to support independent management and maintenance provides several advantages.
For example: If a partition fails, it can be recovered independently without applications that access data in other partitions. Partitioning data by geographical area allows scheduled maintenance tasks to occur at off-peak hours for each location. Ensure that partitions are not too large to prevent any planned maintenance from being completed during this period. Whether to replicate critical data across partitions.
This strategy can improve availability and performance, but can also introduce consistency issues. It takes time to synchronize changes with every replica. During this period, different partitions will contain different data values. Application design considerations Partitioning adds complexity to the design and development of your system.
Consider partitioning as a fundamental part of system design even if the system initially only contains a single partition. If you address partitioning as an afterthought, it will be more challenging because you already have a live system to maintain: Data access logic will need to be modified. Large quantities of existing data might need to be migrated, to distribute it across partitions.
Users expect to be able to continue using the system during the migration. In some cases, partitioning is not considered important because the initial dataset is small and can be easily handled by a single server. This might be true for some workloads, but many commercial systems need to expand as the number of users increases.
Moreover, it's not only large data stores that benefit from partitioning. For example, a small data store might be heavily accessed by hundreds of concurrent clients. Partitioning the data in this situation can help to reduce contention and improve throughput. Consider the following points when you design a data partitioning scheme: Minimize cross-partition data access operations. Where possible, keep data for the most common database operations together in each partition to minimize cross-partition data access operations.
Querying across partitions can be more time-consuming than querying within a single partition, but optimizing partitions for one set of queries might adversely affect other sets of queries. If you must query across partitions, minimize query time by running parallel queries and aggregating the results within the application.
This approach might not be possible in some cases, such as when the result from one query is used in the next query. Consider replicating static reference data. If queries use relatively static reference data, such as postal code tables or product lists, consider replicating this data in all of the partitions to reduce separate lookup operations in different partitions.
This approach can also reduce the likelihood of the reference data becoming a "hot" dataset, with heavy traffic from across the entire system. However, there is an additional cost associated with synchronizing any changes to the reference data. Minimize cross-partition joins. Where possible, minimize requirements for referential integrity across vertical and functional partitions. In these schemes, the application is responsible for maintaining referential integrity across partitions.
Queries that join data across multiple partitions are inefficient because the application typically needs to perform consecutive queries based on a key and then a foreign key. Instead, consider replicating or de-normalizing the relevant data. If cross-partition joins are necessary, run parallel queries over the partitions and join the data within the application. Embrace eventual consistency.
Evaluate whether strong consistency is actually a requirement. A common approach in distributed systems is to implement eventual consistency. The data in each partition is updated separately, and the application logic ensures that the updates are all completed successfully. It also handles the inconsistencies that can arise from querying data while an eventually consistent operation is running.
Consider how queries locate the correct partition. If a query must scan all partitions to locate the required data, there is a significant impact on performance, even when multiple parallel queries are running. With vertical and functional partitioning, queries can naturally specify the partition.
Horizontal partitioning, on the other hand, can make locating an item difficult, because every shard has the same schema. A typical solution to maintain a map that is used to look up the shard location for specific items. This map can be implemented in the sharding logic of the application, or maintained by the data store if it supports transparent sharding.
You can do it, and we can show you how. Hard drive space will always be in constant demand, what with the average game install exceeding a gigabyte of space, and fast Internet and file sharing conspiring to fill our computers with things we can't possibly do without. Fortunately, hard disk space continues to expand affordably. As the average computer can use up to three hard disks in addition to a CD drive, it's easy enough to go out and buy a new drive to add extra storage space to your system.
Easy enough until you get around to actually putting the drive in, that is. Few other computer upgrades carry more potential complications and complexities than installing and preparing a newly purchased hard drive for use.
There are a few words we need to define before going any further. Don't worry, there won't be a test. Creating a partition reserves a physical portion of the hard drive space for use as a logical drive, or volume, that the operating system can address.
Dynamic partitioning is when a partition is set up based on what the computer is currently using. This is the most advanced type of partitioning and is used on high-end computers. Dynamic partitioning is more complex and can take more time to set up, but it can be more effective because it allows you to change which devices are in which partition.
Fixed partitioning is the most common type of partitioning and is perfect for devices such as hard drives and optical discs. What Is A Fixed Partition? A partition is a type of disk that stores important data on a specific section of a hard disk. Fixed partitions are created on a hard disk and are used to store data permanently. When a user wants to change the size of a partition on their hard disk, they must first change the size of the partition on their computer.
What Is The Dynamic Partitioning? Dynamic partitioning is the process of dividing a computer system into multiple partitions that are dynamically allocated and used by the system. Partitioning allows for more efficient use of computer resources by dividing the system into smaller, more efficient chunks.
In fixed partitioning techniques, partitions are defined and fixed, meaning that they are not flexible or changeable. Fixed partitioning techniques are often used in larger organizations because they provide stability and predictability in data access. Fixed partitioning techniques use a specific layout for each table or index within a database. Dynamic partitioning DP is a partitioning technique that divides a computer system into multiple independent zones that run independently.
This allows each zone to carry out its own tasks and applications while allowing the overall system to run more efficiently. One of the main advantages of DP is that it allows for more efficient use of resources by each zone. Additionally, DP also allows for more efficient communication between zones.
This is because each zone can run its own applications and tasks, and no applications or tasks need to be run simultaneously in order for the overall system to run more efficiently. It involves dividing a computer system into zones and assigning each zone its own resources. It involves partitioning a computer system into multiple zones and assigning each zone its own resources and applications. A fixed partition memory management scheme is a preferred choice for systems that require strict data security and durability.
A fixed partition memory management scheme ensures that data is stored in a segregated and authenticated manner, which helps to prevent unauthorized access and theft. Additionally, a fixed partition memory management scheme helps to improve system performance. Fixed partition is a type of partitioning that is used in computing to distribute data evenly between different parts of a computer. It is a method of assigning a fixed number of storage blocks to each device, which allows the device to be used as a single unit.
This type of partitioning is often used in disks and hard drives, where each block is assigned a unique name. There are a few drawbacks to fixed partition multiprogramming. The first is that it can be time-consuming to set up and manage a separate multiprogramming environment for each application.
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Mar 13, · Here is the guide of how to partition a hard drive in Windows by using this software. Step 1: Launch Partition Wizard to get the main interface. Click on the partition and . Oct 5, · A quick guide on what the terms “Place Value” and “Partitioning” mean and how to do this! Partition, partitioning: Free space on a hard disk must be partitioned before it can be used by an operating system. Creating a partition reserves a physical portion of the hard drive space .