investing input meaning in the computer
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Other Bets Props and Futures Some other fun bets that can be made on basketball include prop bets and futures. How To Bet News. Handicapping Your Basketball Bets When oddsmakers set the lines, they take many factors into consideration. If you have even one loss, you lose the entire bet. On the other hand the Magic must either win outright or lose by 3 or fewer points for a Magic spread bet to payout.

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Investing input meaning in the computer

His background in tax accounting has served as a solid base supporting his current book of business. In science, computing, and engineering, a black box is a device, system, or object which produces useful information without revealing any information about its internal workings. Advances in computing power, artificial intelligence , and machine learning capabilities are causing a proliferation of black box models in many professions, and are adding to the mystique surrounding them.

Black box models are eyed warily by potential users in many professions. As one physician writes in a paper about their uses in cardiology: "Black box is shorthand for models that are sufficiently complex that they are not straightforwardly interpretable to humans. Black box models are increasingly used to drive decision-making in the financial markets.

Technology advances, particularly in machine learning capabilities, make it impossible for a human mind to analyze or understand precisely how black box models produce their conclusions. The opposite of a black box is a white box.

Its results are transparent and can be analyzed by the user. The term black box model can be easily misused and may merely reflect a need to protect proprietary software or a desire to avoid clear explanations. The opposite of a black box is a system made up of inner workings that are available for inspection. This is commonly referred to as a white box, although it is sometimes called a clear box or a glass box.

The Black Box Model in Finance Within financial markets, the increasing use of black box methods poses a number of concerns. A black box model is not inherently risky, but it does raise some governance and ethical questions. Investment advisors who use black box methods can conceal the true risk of the assets they recommend under the guise of protecting proprietary technology.

That leaves both investors and regulators without the facts that they need to accurately assess the risk that is being undertaken. Do the benefits of black box methods offset the drawbacks? Opinions differ. Who Uses Black Box Financial Models The use of black box models to analyze investments has gone in and out of style over the years, usually depending on whether the financial markets are up or down.

During volatile patches in the financial markets, black box strategies are singled out for their potentially destructive nature. The risk levels being undertaken may not be evident until extreme losses reveal them. Advances in computing power, big data applications, artificial intelligence , and machine learning capabilities are increasing the use and adding to the mystique surrounding black box models that use sophisticated quantitative methods.

The use of the black box model in psychology can be traced to B. Skinner, father of the school of behaviorism. Skinner argued that psychologists should study the brain's responses, not its processes. Black Box Blowups There have been several notable instances that included extreme losses in portfolios devoted to black box strategies.

Black box strategies were not to blame for these events. However, investors who were dependent on those strategies suffered from them. These events include: Black Monday , on Oct. The collapse of a hedge fund, Long-Term Capital Management , in The fund made huge profits using an arbitrage strategy to buy bonds until a bond default by Russia's government caused it to collapse, nearly bringing the global financial system with it.

The " flash crash " on Aug. Flash crashes, which now occur periodically, involve a short uncontrolled drop in an asset's value, followed by an immediate recovery in its price. The PMT function calculates a monthly payment amount. In this example, the monthly payment amount is the goal that you seek. Prepare the worksheet Open a new, blank worksheet.

First, add some labels in the first column to make it easier to read the worksheet. In cell A1, type Loan Amount. In cell A2, type Term in Months. In cell A3, type Interest Rate. In cell A4, type Payment. Next, add the values that you know. In cell B1, type This is the amount that you want to borrow. In cell B2, type This is the number of months that you want to pay off the loan. Note: Although you know the payment amount that you want, you do not enter it as a value, because the payment amount is a result of the formula.

Instead, you add the formula to the worksheet and specify the payment value at a later step, when you use Goal Seek. Next, add the formula for which you have a goal. This formula calculates the payment amount. You don't enter that amount here, because you want to use Goal Seek to determine the interest rate, and Goal Seek requires that you start with a formula.

The formula refers to cells B1 and B2, which contain values that you specified in preceding steps. The formula also refers to cell B3, which is where you will specify that Goal Seek put the interest rate. The formula divides the value in B3 by 12 because you specified a monthly payment, and the PMT function assumes an annual interest rate.

You can ignore that value for now. In the Set cell box, enter the reference for the cell that contains the formula that you want to resolve. In the example, this reference is cell B4.

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Mutual funds do not trade on an exchange and are valued at the end of the trading day; ETFs trade on stock exchanges and, like stocks, are valued constantly throughout the trading day. Investment Trusts Trusts are another type of pooled investment. REITs invest in commercial or residential properties and pay regular distributions to their investors from the rental income received from these properties.

REITs trade on stock exchanges and thus offer their investors the advantage of instant liquidity. Alternative Investments Alternative investments is a catch-all category that includes hedge funds and private equity. Hedge funds are so-called because they can hedge their investment bets by going long and short on stocks and other investments.

Private equity enables companies to raise capital without going public. Hedge funds and private equity were typically only available to affluent investors deemed " accredited investors " who met certain income and net worth requirements. However, in recent years, alternative investments have been introduced in fund formats that are accessible to retail investors.

Options and Other Derivatives Derivatives are financial instruments that derive their value from another instrument, such as a stock or index. Options contracts are a popular derivative that gives the buyer the right but not the obligation to buy or sell a security at a fixed price within a specific time period. Derivatives usually employ leverage , making them a high-risk, high-reward proposition. Commodities Commodities include metals, oil, grain, and animal products, as well as financial instruments and currencies.

They can either be traded through commodity futures—which are agreements to buy or sell a specific quantity of a commodity at a specified price on a particular future date—or ETFs. Commodities can be used for hedging risk or for speculative purposes. Comparing Investing Styles Let's compare a couple of the most common investing styles: Active versus passive investing: The goal of active investing is to "beat the index" by actively managing the investment portfolio.

Passive investing, on the other hand , advocates a passive approach, such as buying an index fund, in tacit recognition of the fact that it is difficult to beat the market consistently. While there are pros and cons to both approaches, in reality, few fund managers beat their benchmarks consistently enough to justify the higher costs of active management.

Value investors look for companies that have significantly lower PE's and higher dividend yields than growth companies because they may be out of favor with investors, either temporarily or for a prolonged period of time. Many investors who prefer to manage their money themselves have accounts at discount or online brokerages because of their low commissions and the ease of executing trades on their platforms.

DIY investing is sometimes called self-directed investing, and requires a fair amount of education, skill, time commitment, and the ability to control one's emotions. If these attributes do not describe you well, it may be smarter to let a professional help manage your investments. Professionally-Managed Investing Investors who prefer professional money management generally have wealth managers looking after their investments.

Wealth managers usually charge their clients a percentage of assets under management AUM as their fees. While professional money management is more expensive than managing money by oneself, such investors don't mind paying for the convenience of delegating the research, investment decision-making, and trading to an expert. The SEC's Office of Investor Education and Advocacy urges investors to confirm that their investment professional is licensed and registered. Roboadvisor Investing Some investors opt to invest based on suggestions from automated financial advisors.

Powered by algorithms and artificial intelligence, roboadvisors gather critical information about the investor and their risk profile to make suitable recommendations. With little to no human interference, roboadvisors offer a cost-effective way of investing with services similar to what a human investment advisor offers. With advancements in technology, roboadvisors are capable of more than selecting investments.

They can also help people develop retirement plans and manage trusts and other retirement accounts, such as k s. A Brief History of Investing While the concept of investing has been around for millennia, investing in its present form can find its roots in the period between the 17th and 18th centuries, when the development of the first public markets connected investors with investment opportunities. Industrial Revolution Investing The Industrial Revolutions of and resulted in greater prosperity as a result of which people amassed savings that could be invested, fostering the development of an advanced banking system.

Most of the established banks that dominate the investing world began in the s, including Goldman Sachs and J. In the second half of the 20th century, many new investment vehicles were introduced, including hedge funds, private equity, venture capital, REITs, and ETFs. In the s, the rapid spread of the Internet made online trading and research capabilities accessible to the general public, completing the democratization of investing that had commenced more than a century ago.

In , the collapse of Enron took center stage, with its full display of fraud that bankrupted the company and its accounting firm, Arthur Andersen, as well as many of its investors. One of the most notable events in the 21st century, or history for that matter, is the Great Recession when an overwhelming number of failed investments in mortgage-backed securities crippled economies around the world.

Well-known banks and investment firms went under, foreclosures surmounted, and the wealth gap widened. The 21st century also opened up the world of investing to newcomers and unconventional investors by saturating the market with discount online investment companies and free-trading apps, such as Robinhood. Investing vs. Speculation Whether buying a security qualifies as investing or speculation depends on three factors: The amount of risk taken on: Investing usually involves a lower amount of risk compared with speculation.

The holding period of the investment: Investing typically involves a longer holding period, measured quite frequently in years; speculation involves much shorter holding periods. Source of returns: Price appreciation may be a relatively less important part of returns from investing, while dividends or distributions may be a major part. In speculation, price appreciation is generally the main source of returns. As price volatility is a common measure of risk, it stands to reason that a staid blue-chip is much less risky than a cryptocurrency.

Thus, buying a dividend-paying blue chip with the expectation of holding it for several years would qualify as investing. On the other hand, a trader who buys a cryptocurrency to flip it for a quick profit in a couple of days is clearly speculating. What was your approximate total return, ignoring commissions? Keep in mind, XYZ does not issue stock dividends. Your approximate total return would then be How Can I Start Investing?

You can choose the do-it-yourself route, selecting investments based on your investing style, or enlist the help of an investment professional, such as an advisor or broker. Before investing, it's important to determine what your preferences and risk tolerance are. If risk-averse, choosing stocks and options, may not be the best choice. Develop a strategy, outlining how much to invest, how often to invest, and what to invest in based on goals and preferences.

Before allocating your resources, research the target investment to make sure it aligns with your strategy and has the potential to deliver desired results. Remember, you don't need a lot of money to begin, and you can modify as your needs change. What Are Some Types of Investments? There are many types of investments to choose from. Other types of investments to consider are real estate, CDs, annuities, cryptocurrencies, commodities, collectibles, and precious metals.

Investing is not reserved for the wealthy. You can invest nominal amounts. For example, you can purchase low-priced stocks, deposit small amounts into an interest-bearing savings account, or save until you accumulate a target amount to invest.

If your employer offers a retirement plan, such as a k , allocate small amounts from your pay until you can increase your investment. With a TV remote , the input button is a button that switches the input device shown on a TV. To switch between these devices, press the input button one or more times. As you press the input button, most TVs display the name of the selected input device and if that device off or doesn't exist the TV shows nothing.

Keep pressing the input button until the correct input device is selected. In general, input can also refer to a contribution of feedback , information , or work. For example, someone may ask you for your input about a project they have undertaken at work or school. Related information If you have input for Computer Hope, use our contact page. See the thousands of positive feedback messages we've received over the years on our customer comments section.

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How Computers Work: What Makes a Computer, a Computer?

AdTD Ameritrade Investor Education Offers Immersive Curriculum, Videos, and Training and Support to Help You Succeed in Your Learning Objectives. AdBrowse & Discover Thousands of Business & Investing Book Titles, for Less. The noninverting input is [math]V^+[/math] and the inverting input is [math]V^-[/math]. An ideal opamp produces an output voltage that is driven by a very high gain [math](K)[/math] times the difference voltage between the two inputs: [math]V_{out}=K (V^+ - V^-)[/math].