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Other Bets Props and Futures Some other fun bets that can be made on basketball include prop bets and futures. How To Bet News. Handicapping Your Basketball Bets When oddsmakers set the lines, they take many factors into consideration. If you have even one loss, you lose the entire bet. On the other hand the Magic must either win outright or lose by 3 or fewer points for a Magic spread bet to payout.

High grade bonds investopedia forex odds for penguins to win stanley cup

High grade bonds investopedia forex

If the security price turns out to be not as desirable during the future dates as the investor originally predicted, the investor does not have to purchase or sell the option security. This form of investment is precarious because it places time requirements on the purchase or sale of securities. Professional investors often discourage the practice of timing the market, and this is why options can be dangerous or rewarding. Initial Public Offerings Some initial public offerings IPOs , such as Snapchat's in mid, attract a lot of attention that can skew valuations and the judgments professionals offer on short-term returns.

Other IPOs are less high-profile and can offer investors a chance to purchase shares while a company is severely undervalued, leading to high short- and long-term returns once a correction in the valuation of the company occurs. On the other hand, Twilio Inc.

IPOs are risky because despite the efforts make by the company to disclose information to the public to obtain the green light on the IPO by the SEC, there is still a high degree of uncertainty as to whether a company's management will perform the necessary duties to propel the company forward.

Venture Capital The future of startups seeking investment from venture capitalists is precarious and uncertain. Many startups fail, but a few gems can offer high-demand products and services that the public wants and needs. Even if a startup's product is desirable, poor management, poor marketing efforts, and even a bad location can deter the success of a new company.

Part of the risk of venture capital is the low transparency in management's perceived ability to carry out the necessary functions to support the business. Many startups are fueled by great ideas by people who are not business-minded. Venture capital investors need to do additional research to assess the viability of a brand new company securely.

Venture capital investments usually have very high minimums, which can challenge some investors. If you consider putting your money into a venture capital fund or investment, make sure to do your due diligence. Foreign Emerging Markets A country experiencing a growing economy can be an ideal investment opportunity. Investors can buy government bonds, stocks, or sectors with that country experiencing hyper-growth or ETFs that represent a growing sector of stocks. Such was the case with China from Spurts in economic growth in countries are rare events that, though risky, can provide investors with a slew of brand new companies to invest in to bolster personal portfolios.

The most significant risk of emerging markets is that the period of extreme growth may last for a shorter amount of time than investors estimate, leading to discouraging performance. The political environment in countries experiencing economic booms can change suddenly and modify the economy that previously supported growth and innovation. The trusts invest in pools of commercial or residential real estate. Due to the underlying interest in real estate ventures, REITs are prone to swings based on developments in an overall economy, levels of interest rates, and the current state of the real estate market, which is known to flourish or experience depression.

The highly fluctuating nature of the real estate market causes REITs to be risky investments. Although the potential dividends from REITs can be high, there is also pronounced risk on the initial principal investment. While these investment choices can provide lucrative returns, they are marred by different types of risks.

While risk may be relative, these investments require a combination of experience, risk management, and education. High-Yield Bonds Whether issued by a foreign government or a high-debt company, high-yield bonds can offer investors outrageous returns in exchange for the potential loss of principal. These instruments can be particularly attractive when compared to the current bonds offered by a government in a low-interest-rate environment.

However, not all high-yield bonds fail, and this is why these bonds can potentially be lucrative. Currency Trading Currency trading and investing may be best left to the professionals, as quick-paced changes in exchange rates offer a high-risk environment to sentimental traders and investors. Those investors who can handle the added pressures of currency trading should seek out the patterns of specific currencies before investing to curtail added risks.

Currency markets are linked to one another, and it is a common practice to short one currency while going long on another to protect investments from additional losses. Currency, or forex trading , as it is called, is not for beginners.

However, if an investment is viewed as a higher risk, investors demand adequate compensation through a higher yield spread in exchange for taking on the risk of their principal declining. For example, a bond issued by a large, financially-healthy company typically trades at a relatively low spread in relation to U. In contrast, a bond issued by a smaller company with weaker financial strength typically trades at a higher spread relative to Treasuries.

For this reason, bonds in emerging markets and developed markets, as well as similar securities with different maturities, typically trade at significantly different yields. Because bond yields are often changing, yield spreads are as well. The direction of the spread may increase or widen, meaning the yield difference between the two bonds is increasing, and one sector is performing better than another. When spreads narrow, the yield difference is decreasing, and one sector is performing more poorly than another.

The spread moved from basis points to basis points, indicating that high-yield bonds underperformed Treasuries during that time period. When compared to the historical trend, yield spreads between Treasuries of different maturities may indicate how investors are viewing economic conditions. Widening spreads typically lead to a positive yield curve, indicating stable economic conditions in the future.

Conversely, when falling spreads contract, worsening economic conditions may be coming, resulting in a flattening of the yield curve. Types of Yield Spreads A zero-volatility spread Z-spread measures the spread realized by the investor over the entire Treasury spot-rate curve , assuming the bond would be held until maturity. This method can be a time-consuming process, as it requires a lot of calculations based on trial and error.

If not, you have to start over and keep trying until the two values are equal. The high-yield bond spread is the percentage difference in current yields of various classes of high-yield bonds compared against investment-grade e. AAA-rated corporate bonds, Treasury bonds, or another benchmark bond measure.

High-yield bond spreads that are wider than the historical average suggests greater credit and default risk for junk bonds. An option-adjusted spread OAS converts the difference between the fair price and market price, expressed as a dollar value, and converts that value into a yield measure. Interest rate volatility plays an essential part in the OAS formula.

The expert, major participants in forex with

By understanding and observing these relationships and their patterns, investors have a window into the currency market, and thereby a means to predict and capitalize on the movements of currencies. Interest and Currencies To see how interest rates have played a role in dictating currency, we can look to the recent past.

After the burst of the tech bubble in , traders went from seeking the highest possible returns to focusing on capital preservation. These large differences in interest rates led to the emergence of the carry trade , an interest rate arbitrage strategy that takes advantage of the interest rate differentials between two major economies while aiming to benefit from the general direction or trend of the currency pair. This trade involves buying one currency and funding it with another. The most commonly used currencies to fund carry trades are the Japanese yen and the Swiss franc because of their countries' exceptionally low-interest rates.

However, it is difficult for individual investors to send money back and forth between bank accounts around the world. The retail spread on exchange rates can offset any additional yield investors are seeking. On the other hand, investment banks, hedge funds, institutional investors , and large commodity trading advisors CTAs generally have the ability to access these global markets and the clout to command low spreads.

As a result, they shift money back and forth in search of the highest yields with the lowest sovereign risk or risk of default. When it comes to the bottom line, exchange rates move based on changes in money flows. Insight for Investors Individual investors can take advantage of these shifts in flows by monitoring yield spreads and the expectations for changes in interest rates that may be embedded in those yield spreads. The following chart is just one example of the strong relationship between interest rate differentials and the price of a currency.

Figure 1. The chart shows us that the five-year yield spread between the Australian dollar and the U. This coincided with a broad sell-off of the Australian dollar against the U. When the yield spread began to rise once again in the summer of , the Australian dollar responded with a similar rise a few months later. The 2. Those traders who managed to get into this trade not only enjoyed the sizable capital appreciation , but also earned the annualized interest rate differential.

Take a look at the next example of the interest rate differential of New Zealand and U. Figure 2. The yield spread topping out in the summer of may be significant in the future beyond the chart. History shows that the movement in interest rate difference between New Zealand and the U. If the yield spread between New Zealand and the U. Other Factors of Assessment The spreads of both the five- and year bond yields can be used to gauge currencies.

The general rule is that when the yield spread widens in favor of a certain currency, that currency will appreciate against other currencies. But, remember, currency movements are impacted not only by actual interest rate changes but also by the shift in economic assessment or the raising or lowering of interest rates by central banks.

The chart below exemplifies this point. Figure 3. The chart indicates that in , when the Fed shifted from economic tightening meaning the Fed intended to raise rates to a neutral outlook, the dollar fell even before the Fed moved on rates note that on July 5, , the blue line plummets before the red line.

The same kind of movement of the dollar is seen when the Fed moved from a neutral to a tightening bias in late and again when it moved to an easier monetary policy in In fact, once the Fed even just considered lowering rates, the dollar reacted with a sharp sell-off. If this relationship continued to hold into the future, investors might expect a little more room for the dollar to rally.

When Using Interest Rates to Predict Currencies Will Not Work Despite the vast number of scenarios in which this strategy for forecasting currency movements works, it is certainly not the Holy Grail to making money in the currency markets. There are a number of scenarios in which this strategy may fail: Impatience As indicated in the examples above, these relationships foster a long-term strategy. The bottoming out of currencies may not occur until a year after interest rate differentials may have bottomed out.

If a trader cannot commit to a time horizon of a minimum of six to 12 months, the success of this strategy may decrease significantly. The reason? Currency valuations reflect economic fundamentals over time. Non-investment grade bonds, or high-yield bonds, carry lower credit ratings from the leading credit agencies. Bonds with ratings above these levels are considered investment grade.

Credit ratings can be as low as D in default , and most bonds with C ratings or lower carry a high risk of default. High-yield bonds are typically broken down into two sub-categories: Fallen Angels: This is a bond that has been downgraded by a major rating agency and is headed toward junk-bond status because of the issuing company's poor credit quality. Rising Stars: A rising star bond has a rating that has increased because of the issuing company's improving credit quality.

A rising star may still be a junk bond, but it's headed toward being investment quality. Advantages of High-Yield Bonds Investors choose high-yield bonds for their potential for higher returns. High-yield bonds do provide higher yields than investment-grade bonds if they do not default. Typically, the bonds with the highest risks also have the highest yields.

Modern portfolio theory states that investors must be compensated for higher risk with higher expected returns. Disadvantages of High-Yield Bonds While high-yield bonds do offer the potential for more gains compared to investment-grade bonds, they also carry a number of risks like default risk, higher volatility, interest rate risk, and liquidity risk.

Default Risk Default is itself the most significant risk for high-yield bond investors. The primary way of dealing with default risk is diversification, but that limits strategies and increases fees for investors. With investment-grade bonds, you can buy bonds issued by individual companies or governments and hold them directly. When you hold individual bonds, you can build bond ladders to reduce interest rate risk.

Investors can often avoid the fees related to funds by holding individual bonds. However, the possibility of default makes individual bonds more risky than investing in bond funds. Small investors may want to avoid buying individual high-yield bonds directly because of high default risk. High-yield bond ETFs and mutual funds are usually better choices for retail investors interested in this asset class because their diversity helps reduce risk.

Higher Volatility Historically, high-yield bond prices have been significantly more volatile than their investment-grade counterparts. The volatility of the high-yield bond market is similar to the volatility of the stock market, unlike the investment-grade bond market, which has much lower volatility. Interest Rate Risk All bonds face interest rate risk. This is the risk that market interest rates will rise and cause the price of a bond to decrease. The price of bonds move in the opposite direction of the price of market interest rates.

The longer a bond's term, the higher the interest rate risk because there is more time for interest rates to change. Liquidity Risk More liquid assets are ones that you can sell easily for cash. When bonds are traded frequently they have higher liquidity. Liquidity risk is the risk that you won't be able to sell an asset at the time and for the price that reflects the true value of the bonds.

High-yield bonds are generally have higher liquidity risk than investment-grade bonds. Even high-yield bond mutual funds and exchange-traded funds ETFs carry liquidity risk. Investment Grade vs. Non-Investment Grade You can typically classify bonds into investment grade and non-investment grade.

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A Simple Explanation of Forex - Investopedia Academy

AdFidelity Investments Has The Firm and Advisor Services You Can Depend On. Advisor Services & Practice Management Solutions You Can Depend On As You Navigate Change. High-yield bonds (also called junk bonds) are bonds that pay higher interest rates because they have lower credit ratings than investment-grade bonds. High-yield bonds ar See more. AdBrowse & Discover Thousands of Business & Investing Book Titles, for Less.