Other Bets Props and Futures Some other fun bets that can be made on basketball include prop bets and futures. How To Bet News. Handicapping Your Basketball Bets When oddsmakers set the lines, they take many factors into consideration. If you have even one loss, you lose the entire bet. On the other hand the Magic must either win outright or lose by 3 or fewer points for a Magic spread bet to payout.
What if a VR game geo-tags the location of a real building as part of a game, thus sending players to the Chrysler building in NYC or maybe even to a private home? Another location-related issue was when a judge declared a Wisconsin ordinance requiring AR game publishers to get special use permits if their apps directed players to county parks as unconstitutional in July.
Notably, he was convicted of hacking into user accounts— which is how he obtained the items—not of theft. Does he have any redress? The ability to not only collect such data but also to combine it with other user data has raised privacy and security concerns.
In preparation for the new law, vendors are reviewing the data they collect, asking whether they really need to collect it, and figuring out if they are properly obtaining user consent. In the U. In fact, at least one woman playing a VR game said that she was virtually groped by a male player, according to the Dentons report. It is alleged that some of the biggest carmakers have colluded to fix prices using industry committees.
Sixty industry committees made up of about employees allegedly discussed vehicle development, brakes, petrol and diesel engines, clutches and transmissions, and exhaust treatment systems. Based on reports in the media, VW as well as Daimler have already submitted leniency applications. Compared to the old legal regime, these new rules significantly facilitate the enforcement of private antitrust damage claims in Austria.
A successf u l cl a i m for d a m ages for a nt it r ust infringements requires that an unlawful and culpable infringement be causal to the occurrence of harm. Furthermore the new legal regime stipulates a presumption of occurrence of harm in cases of cartels between competitors, which also facilitates the enforcement of claims for antitrust damages against the carmakers.
In case an infringement is determined, the carmakers will be jointly and severally liable for all harm caused. Therefore, an injured party can also claim damages from other parties to the infringement from which it did not purchase goods or services e. One of the main exceptions of this general rule, however, is the existence of a leniency application: leniency applicants are in principle only liable for damages caused to their direct and indirect purchasers or suppliers.
Compared to the old regime, injured parties may istock. A and iii the fact that the antitrust employees allegedly party for antitrust damages claims infringement has caused harm to it. In the next step, should not be stretched too far: and transmissions, and the court has to decide based on a newspaper articles on ongoing proportionality test whether such a exhaust treatment systems.
Thus the current media attention never permitted to be disclosed and documents prepared on the alleged German carmakers cartel is not sufficient specifically for the proceedings before a competition to start the limitation period. Ultimately there is an authority may only be ordered after the proceedings were absolute limitation period of 10 years as of the occurrence closed.
Due to the fact that these disclosure provisions are of harm. However, both of these periods are suspended a novelty in Austria and several rounds for disclosure can by pending proceedings before competition authorities as be made during the same proceeding, it can be expected well as by settlement negotiations. Customers or suppliers potentially harmed by the Lastly, it should be stressed out that the right to claim alleged carmakers cartel should therefore carefully damages is time-barred after five years from the date the monitor the development of the proceedings before the injured party knows or reasonably should have known competition authorities.
This will have a knock-on effect in other numerous regulated areas. This amendment will help create a long overdue, transparent, and consistent framework for all investment service providers, starting January There will be numerous changes. Firstly, setting higher standards for existing multilateral trading facilities MTFs and the newly introduced obligation to obtain authorization from the appropriate national regulator to operate organized trading facilities OTFs will close supervisory gaps and improve the conditions for competition on regulated markets.
It will also introduce specific growth markets, which should aid small- and medium-sized enterprises, giving them better access to the capital markets. Secondly, regulating data provision services will ensure greater transparency. Another central aspect that will be introduced by the Stock Exchange and General Commodity Exchange Act is the option for stock companies to voluntarily delist from the market. The Viennese Stock Market currently consists of two regulated markets: the official market and the second regulated market.
The amendment in view of the limited size of the Austrian capital market will abrogate with such differentiation and will unify the two regulated markets into one official market. The Stock Exchange and General Commodity Exchange Act will create the legal basis enabling listed companies to request that their stock and financial instruments be delisted from the official market.
Until the law enters into force in , stock companies will continue to be unable to voluntarily delist from the stock market and are compelled to find other ways to do so. With effect from January , this gap in the law, which sets the Vienna Stock Exchange as the only stock exchange in Austria apart from other stock markets, will be rectified by bringing Austrian law in line with international standards.
The lack of a regulated delisting process has often come in for criticism, with accusations that it has put Austrian companies at a competitive disadvantage. The amendment promises to eliminate this handicap and bring more flexibility for issuers of financial instruments. The Securities Exchange and General Commodity Exchange Act lays down the conditions that must be met in order for the delisting process to be set in motion.
First and foremost, the company in question must have been listed for a minimum of three years prior to an application being made for revocation of admission. Furthermore, delisting from the Vienna Stock Exchange must not jeopardize the protection afforded to investors.
The pricing of these shares must comply with the mandator y p r i c i n g p rov i s i o n s of the Takeover Act that basically refers to a volume weighted average trading price of the stock. The amendment will introduce additional methods for calculating minimum prices. The average stock market price over the last five stock market days before the offer is announced should be used for the purpose of calculating the price, even though this will not always be representative of the price paid for the shares on the Austrian stock market.
If these calculated values are below the actual value of the shares, the price must be amended upward appropriately. However, if there is a second quotation on a different regulated market within the European Economic Area EEA , such an offer can be dispensed with. Nowadays 90 percent of Brazilian companies are taxed by Simples. Simples is an easy way to pay taxes, and usually it is the best tax system for Brazilian companies because the taxes are frequently lower than other systems.
So Brazil made its complex tax system easier and cheaper for millions of Brazilian companies. In , Brazil increased the company income allowed to choose Simples within the tax law system by 33 percent. As a result, Brazil stimulates the exportation of goods and services. Whoever wanted to do business alone had an unlimited liability per loss and was unsuccessful in their business, having a limited liability partnership with just two or more partners.
Most of the time such statements have a real basis, but it is undeniable the enormous advances Brazil has made in the last 10 years. With over million inhabitants, Brazil is an incredible consumer market, with enormous natural resources and, undeniably, the economic power of Latin America. For those who wish to do global business, the Brazilian economy can never be disregarded.
This is cheaper for a company to defend its interests in Brazil. In addition to that, investments from Brazil are highlighted in many of places around the world. Brazilians are among the most important investors in the state of Florida, in Portugal there is a strong Brazilian investment, and there are many Brazilian investments around the world in areas such as China and Japan.
There are seven steps ahead for the Brazilian business environment in the next 10 years. The new code made the judicial procedure faster, cheaper, and more effective. Thus, old Brazilian problems were solved or reduced.
In , a new outsourcing law came into effect, modernizing a controversial issue of Brazilian labor legislation. It is currently allowed to outsource any activities and no longer just some activities as before. In , Brazil modernized its employment law and solved chronic problems.
In this way, Brazil made it cheaper to hire a employee and easier to fire, too. Brazil hoped to increase the amount of investments within its companies and made its companies stronger to compete in the world market. However, if you look to the past years, you easily recognize that important steps have been taken in the last 10 years in the Brazilain business environment. In the next year, Brazil has a presidential campaign, and the country has a big opportunity to balance its politicial environment.
To be certain, Brazil has a lot of attributes to highlight as an international economy in the world. It is also a theme of heated debates because it involves a series of challenging issues in the context of a digital economy, such as technological innovation, respect for human rights, freedom, and democracy. An example of this was the cooperation agreement signed in that was later repealed between the Superior Electoral Court with the Credit Report Entity SPC Serasa in order to disclose personal data of about million Brazilian voters.
More recently, several court orders determined the WhatsApp blockages as a penalty for not complying with court orders enforcing the disclosure of content messages protected by encryption. A change of paradigm is urgent and requires robust legislation on personal data protection. However, Brazilian legislation currently in force is not adequate enough to provide legal certainty on the processing of personal data by public and private entities. The Internet Bill of Rights is a great step toward the implementation of the right to privacy on the Internet, but it does not assure data protection as a whole.
According to the Bill of Law, istock. The consent is one of nine requirements to authorize the processing of personal data. The Bill of Law expressly provides that personal data processing is allowed under free, express, specific, and informed consent.
However, certain flexibility is allowed in cases when it is necessary: i compliance with legal obligation; ii data sharing between governmental entities; iii historical, scientific, and statistic research; iv execution of contracts, as requested by the data owner; v use in judicial or administrative proceeding; vi life protection; and vii to fulfill legitimate interest of those responsible for processing the data.
The bill also provides special rules on sensitive personal data processing, which can only take place under special consent, or without consent in certain circumstances, such as fulfillment of legal obligation. International transfer of data is only allowed by the Bill of Law for countries that provide a level of protection for personal data that is equivalent to the level established in Brazilian law. If the personal data is transferred to a country that does not provide a level of protection, special consent is required.
Security measures and good practices are also required by the bill, and individuals and companies shall be subject to the administrative penalties for any breaches of the standards established in the law, which may be applied by an enforcement authority for data protection to be created through the Brazilian government. In view of this and despite the fact that there is no expectation as to when the Bill of Law will be approved, Brazilian and foreign companies that process personal data must attempt to implement policies on privacy and personal data protection, and ultima ratio be compromised with a transparent corporate governance.
This is a sine qua non condition for the sustainable development of disr upt ive technologies such as the Internet of Things and artificial intelligence. By Roberto Guerrero V. New rules were added to perfect the corporate governance of listed corporations and closely-held companies. One of the major changes that were introduced to the law was the treatment of related-party transactions RPT. Under this new regulation, closely-held corporations and listed corporations have different procedures to enter into transactions that have the nature of RPT.
The rules set for listed corporations and how have they been interpreted and applied by the Chilean Superintendencia de Valores y Seguros SVS , which is a governmental entity that supervises the capital markets and compliance of securities regulations by listed corporations, are analyzed below. If we follow the written language of the Chilean Corporations Act, we should understand that the procedure to approve an RPT is intended for cases in which a corporation acted as a party in the transaction.
A clear example would be a purchase agreement in which there was a conf lict of interest as defined in the Chilean Corporations Act. In that case, both parties would be acting with opposed interests in the transaction. The first case appeared during the corporate reorganization carried on by a foreign multinational that had interest in several utilities in Chile and Latin America. Part of that reorganization depended on the capital increase of a Chilean listed corporation, which was intended to be paid in kind with assets of the controlling shareholders and not in cash.
Pension funds that were minority shareholders objected the transaction the capital increase before SVS on the basis that a capital contribution in assets should be treated as an RPT and requested the company and its shareholders follow the procedure to approve an RPT with the procedure for a capital increase paid in kind altogether. The second case was a lso con nected to a corporate reorganization process. One of t he steps of that process consisted of the merger of two subsidiaries that were related to the same controlling shareholder.
Again, pension funds estimated that this process would harm the interests of minority shareholders and requested the SVS to issue an opinion whether the merger was an RPT and, if so, whether it needed to follow certain steps instead of the standard shareholder procedure for merger approval.
In this case, the SVS determined that, even though the merger was an RPT, it should not follow the procedures to approve an RPT but rather the merger approval process, because the special rules about mergers applied in this case. In other words, both processes should be followed to materialize a merger between two related entities.
These two cases completely changed the way RPTs had been treated up to that moment. The first clear rule that is currently being applied is that every transaction between related parties in which a listed corporation is involved should follow the process set out for RPTs, even if there are other rules that may apply and potentially conflict with them.
In this line, it would not make a difference if the subject matter of the operation was solved only among shareholders. In those cases, even if the company is the object of the transaction, shareholders should take into account the interest of the minority shareholders of the corporation.
Also, parties should be aware that two different procedures with different timings must be considered and consolidated. The experience has shown that it is possible to combine both processes into one. This may lead to a lengthier and bureaucratic process in time, due to preparatory steps, and more steps must be adopted, as well as additional compliance expenses, since every related party must request the opinion of an independent evaluator for the review of the boa rd members and of the shareholders.
Finally, since two different processes may need to be applied, the protective measures of each process must be fulfilled. Therefore, both in the cases of mergers and of capital contributions that are paid with assets of an existing shareholder must have, in addition to the opinion of the independent evaluator, the opinion of an expert who valuated the entities or the assets depending on the transaction. The natural question is whether minority shareholders are better protected with this broad interpretation of the RPT statute by the SVS and the courts.
We believe that the answer is no. What it did was to denaturalize the law and apply it to cases that were not intended by the legislator, adding costs to any corporate reorganization process that is supported by all shareholders. Moreover, shareholders had protective measures with the opinion of the experts, and they could always have requested members of the board to be held liable in case of breach to their fiduciary duties.
Furthermore, the Chilean Corporations Act obliges shareholders to exercise their corporate rights considering the rights of the company and the rights of other shareholders, which we believe was the rule that the SVS and the court should have applied to solve the problems it faced in the mentioned cases. Approval requires the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares. On June 12, the Ministry of Finance published on its website the draft regulations in order to determine how to implement this registry, which was created in order to seek transparency and clarity in mercantile companies and other legal vehicles.
Which entities are obliged to contribute to the registry? According to Law , the following legal institutes are obliged to register: companies, indefinite legal structures neither determined by law nor by means of regulation , and private trusts. Who are excluded from contributing to the registry? The Genera l Superintendent of Securities, the Genera l Superintendent of Pensions, and the General Superintendent of Financial Institutions were determined by regulation to be excluded from the scope of the said registry.
All other decentralized public entities, autonomous, and semi- autonomous institutions are outside the scope of the law together with the municipalities and public trusts. Who is responsible for the shareholder register? The obligation is imposed by the legal representative of the company or the fiduciary in their case. Both must have a registered digital signature.
What happens if you break your legal obligations? In case of non-compliance, the penalty is a fine of 2 percent of gross income in the tax on the income of the taxpayer of the previous immediate fiscal period, with a minimum of three and a maximum of base salaries. It is necessary to clarify that in addition to these sanctions, non-pecuniary sanctions appear on the public omission list and an inability to register documents in the public registry shall be carried.
Below we detail the modular and essential aspects that come into effect with the reform. Indirect control shall be understood as having control over legal persons who finally have a participation in the legal person or national legal structure and, directly, the possibility of having sufficient shares or shares to control the legal person or national legal structure. In the case of persons or legal entities domiciled in Costa Rica, whose substantive shareholding in the share capital belongs wholly or in part to legal entities domiciled abroad, where it is impossible to identify the final beneficiary, in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, having exhausted all means of identification and provided that there is no cause for suspicion, it shall be presumed that the final beneficiary is the administrator.
From these principles, it follows that parties are free to decide which facts and evidence they want to introduce or not introduce in a case. The discovery of evidence obliges both parties to disclose information and documentation t h at m ay be rea son ably relevant to the case, including facts and items that could be unfavorable to the party who possesses them. These goals are assigned lesser priority in the procedural law of most civil law states in Continental Europe.
Therein, the law requires that both parties actively contribute to the proceedings by expressing their factual point of view and telling the truth. This means that when the plaintiff presents its case with a high degree of substantiation, the defendant cannot, without more, simply contest it. Instead, the defendant is required to substantiate their own defense.
For example, Article 93 2 of the German Stock Corporation Act provides that, when in dispute, a director must prove that he properly fulfilled his duties and met all applicable legal rules and standards. In such an instance, the defendant already knows the facts and disclosure would not be unreasonable.
The discovery of evidence may be abused when a litigant initiates legal proceedings on the basis of a raw, bare, unsubstantiated claim, expecting that they can f lesh out the necessary facts through discovery. In civil law, such claims are strictly impermissible. As a general rule, the court cannot at its own discretion demand further explanation or even the disclosure of documents. Instead, the International Bar Association carefully crafted a request to produce.
Nevertheless, it has become an ever-increasing occurrence in international arbitration for inconsistent and made up claims to be brought to arbitration. Often, this tactic is employed by the claimant simply to put pressure on the respondent, with the intended aim of forcing settlement on favorable conditions. In many instances, litigants expect to find information to support their claims during a discovery process, but this would not be acceptable under Continental European procedure law.
Here, a court or an arbitrator must dismiss inconsistent and unsubstantiated claims without the taking of any evidence. Still, practical application of the IBA Rules can vary. Depending on the legal background of the presiding arbitrator, the basic civil law concerns built into the IBA Rules might be diluted in favor of broader-reaching common law principles, regardless of the law applicable at the seat of the arbitration.
In such cases, the taking of evidence with respect to apparently baseless and inflated claims exceeds the intended limits of the IBA Rules and the intended concept of a request to produce. This way of implementing the IBA Rules, however, is in contrast to their wording and meaning. If one were to reference the history of the IBA Rules, one would recall that the compromise struck therein derived from the principles of Continental European civil law.
Moreover, the IBA Rules were specifically and purposefully not intended to be a moderate alteration of the discovery process under common law. This article focuses on two groups of provisions of particular interest: firstly, on the provisions that enhance the protection of copyright and related rights on the Internet, and secondly, on the equitable remuneration blank tape levy due for reproduction for private use in relation to smartphones.
C o py r i g h t infringement was not included until now in this numerus clausus list. If the committee finds that there is a copyright infringement, it urges the above receivers of the notification to remove the unlawfully posted, infringing material or to disable access to it. In case of noncompliance, they will be subject to fines. However, it does not apply to infringements committed by end users by downloading, peer to further delays. The draft law, as deposited in the Greek Parliament, provided that smartphones with a RAM size of more than 4GB would be subject to the blank tape levy.
In the latest version of the draft law, smartphones had been included in the same category as tablets and computers, and the equitable remuneration applicable to them was set at 2 percent of their value. During the parliamentar y discussion and voting process, smartphones were removed from this categor y but not from the whole law. The text of the law clearly states that smartphones are still considered as devices that are subject to the blank tape levy, without however determining the percentage of the levy.
However, it does not apply to infringements committed by end users by downloading, peer to peer file sharing, streaming, or cloud computing. For example, the constitution of the special committee, composed of representatives of different independent authorities as well as its decision-making process, is expected to be very time-consuming, as has been the case with other committees in Greece in the recent past such as the National Radio Television Council.
Centro Mexicano Pro Bono, A. MX is a non-profit organization, incorporated in , whose mission is to serve and help underprivileged people in Mexico who require legal advice. Through the relevant pro bono legal work and its strategic partnerships with the most prestigious law firms in Mexico, ProBono. MX ensures high-quality legal advice and consulting to underprivileged groups.
M X is a resu lts-d r iven associat ion whose members always seek the common benefit of underprivileged groups; this explains the important efforts made by the project participants. Based on the dedicated service and commitment, and within its specific purpose, ProBono. MX provides training and information to disadvantaged groups, nonprofit organizations, and micro-entrepreneurs through pro bono legal work from lawyers and law f irms that have partnered with ProBono.
Consequently, the social inequality and economic disparity will be reduced. Needless to say, the results achieved will be precedent-setting across Mexico. The increased number of underprivileged groups who required legal assistance and the lack of enough pro bono institutions willing to provide services motivated the creation of ProBono. The main difference between ProBono. MX and the existing pro bono institutions is that ProBono. MX is open to help all vulnerable groups and also open to all kinds of qualified lawyers, as well as in-house lawyers.
MX is making a difference in this regard due to its willingness to benefit various groups. They are also playing an important role in supporting non-profit organizations that aim to help but lack sufficient funds and required assistance to succeed. Aware of the fact that many people within Mexico face odds and adversities, ProBono. MX initiated a project to connect people and organizations in need of legal representation with lawyers and law firms capable of tending to their specific situations.
Among other vulnerable groups, ProBono. MX supports Mexican startups made up of mostly Mexican women on their way to starting microenterprises and medium-sized businesses. This project aims to help startups acquire all legal authorizations required by the applicable governmental entities, resulting in a smaller number of informal companies and more formal businesses that comply with the relevant laws.
But the legal services of ProBono. MX do not stop there; they also provide useful capacity-building training to achieve outstanding business functionality and proper conduct. The success achieved by this and other projects conducted by ProBono. MX also supports partner law firms and lawyers to increase the efficiency of the pro bono legal work by performing functions that no other clearinghouse in Mexico does.
Among other important features, ProBono. MX encourages pro bono work by def ining a policy for each law firm, a ccord i ng to it s a re a s of ex per tise, preferred socia l causes, a nd by filtrating cases through a scrupulous study in which they verify the v u lnerability of the beneficiary and if pro bono work is needed.
This study may even include conducting an i nter v iew w it h such l aw f i r m s to obt a i n appropriate information to establish what actions have to be taken to provide accurate pro bono legal work. As a result of the commitment and dedication to defending unprivileged groups of the Mexican population, ProBono.
MX has assisted over 67 people and 34 non-profit organizations, and has managed to partner with more than 13 law firms in Mexico. Pro bono work, understood as a critical part of the Mexican legal profession, has been frequently forgotten by attorneys and has yet to yield its full potential and is the reason why ProBono.
MX urges and calls upon law firms in Mexico and around the world to promote pro bono activities within their respective legal practices. MX encourages pro bono work by defining a policy for each law firm, according to its areas of expertise, preferred social causes, and by filtrating cases through a scrupulous study in which they verify the vulnerability of the beneficiary and if pro bono work is needed.
Its strategic geographical location, which grants it proximity to North, Central, and South Americas; its ability to enact laws and regulations similar or identical to those that are recognized and compatible with some of the most sophisticated jurisdictions in the world; its ample federal regulatory backbone; and its autonomy for certain aspects make it an ideal business environment for a variety of industries.
Furthermore, its own history, coupled with its interaction with the United States for the last century, have continually molded the island into a location that has a unique set of characteristics that are unequal to any other U. These factors, along with various tax incentive programs, provide an unmatched development ground for various business sectors.
As a result, and as with all U. However, U. An individual will be considered a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico if such individual meets all of the following: i presence test, ii tax home test, and iii closer connection test, as provided in the U. If any of these three tests are not met, the individual will not be treated as a P. The vast majority of these incentives provide i a fixed low income tax rate; ii various tax exemptions and special deductions; and iii training expenses reimbursement and special tax treatment for pioneer activities.
Some of the keystone tax incentive acts in Puerto Rico that are granted to the legal entities that operate in the island are i Act 73 of May 28, , known as the Economic Incentives for the Development of Puerto Rico Act, as amended Act 73 , which is focused mainly on manufacturing operations, pharmaceutical industries, airplane and ship repairs, research and development, among others; ii Act 20 of January 17, , known as the Act to Promote the Export of Services, as amended Act 20 , was designed to tap into the human capital of the island and develop it into an international export service center; it covers almost any type of exportable service that is provided to clients who do not have a nexus with Puerto Rico; and iii Act No.
In addition, there are certain tax incentive acts that are granted at the individual level. The aforementioned benefits extend for an initial period of 20 and 15 years, respectively. Act provides multiple benefits, and some of the incentives vary depending on the role the individual or entity plays in the private equity fund. Some of the main benefits under Act are i deduction of 30 percent to 60 percent of the initial investment made in the fund; ii preferential tax rates on capital gains, dividend, and interest income; and iii special tax rates on the sale of ownership interests.
In the case of Act 22, it provides a percent exemption on dividend, interest, and capital gain income that are derived from Puerto Rico sources. The benefits under Act 22 last until December 31, The preferential tax rates under Act 14 are available for an initial period of 15 years. When the P. For professiona ls, rest r uct u ri ng a nd insolvency require a creative, f lexible, and goal-oriented approach apart from a n e x t e n s ive a nd in-depth knowledge of va rious a reas of expertise, such a s mergers a nd a c qu i s it ion s , project f i na nci ng, e m ploy m e nt , a nd litigation.
One of t he key elements to ma ke a success story out of a n i n solvenc y case by succeeding to restructure the business, preserve its identity, or even expand is to make the debtor liaise with its important creditors to find a common middle ground. The first step in the process is to identify the signs of an imminent insolvency, demand professional legal and financial advice, and file for insolvency as soon as possible. On a general note, from a legal perspective the current insolvency legislation in force is quite balanced and offers sufficient protection to both debtors and creditors.
Importantly, the management prerogatives remain with the debtor under the supervision of the creditors and the judicial administrator while the syndic judge is called to ensure the legality of the entire process and settle any potential disputes between the parties involved in relation thereto. The insolvency practitioner plays a particularly important role, and it is essential that the latter has the necessary expertise and the right overview. That is why thinking through the entire process, seeking professional help, and choosing qualified and experienced professionals as judicial administrators to be further endorsed and confirmed by the creditors during the process is critical and may make the difference between a successful reorganization and bankruptcy.
From bot h a lega l a nd busi ness is possible, that the chances for them to recover their receivables to the best extent are righteously preserved, and that nothing is allowed to diminish the value or protection of their receivables. On the other hand, it can be helping a debtor facing reputational damage and overnight reluctant business partners and suppliers.
In this context, the constructive pa rtnership bet ween the compa ny management and an experienced judicial administrator is, without a doubt, the best solution to overcome critical moments and mediate the often contradictory interests of the creditors. Fu rthermore, other elements to consider are the practical viability of a reorganization plan that gives the market constraints, the degree of support from the financing creditors, the appetite of such to still sustain the business that requires sophisticated and sometimes rather sensitive assessments from various perspectives including legal, financial, business, and marketing.
As said, insolvency may be either a solution or a problem depending on the perspective. However, a well-managed insolvency can make that difference. From both a legal and business perspective, the critical period in any insolvency proceeding is the observation period, which is the period between the opening of the insolvency and the approval and implementation of a reorganization plan. Equally, the debtor and the judicial administrator have a difficult mission during this observation period, apart from the procedural steps outlined above.
The challenge resides in finding the proper balance between, on one hand, offering the creditors a reasonable degree of comfort that the reorganization w w w. Recently there has been an increase of such impact, which leads to modification of the existing and formation of the new institutes of antimonopoly legislation. The basic role in these processes plays the Federal Antimonopoly Service FAS Russia , which became one of the most active public authorities in recent years and has a substantial inf luence on economic matters in the Russian Federation.
FAS Russia gains more and more power, not only regarding the antimonopoly regulation issues, but also in relation to other spheres of public regulation that previously belonged to other state authorities. For example, the recent amendments to the Russian legislation granted FAS Russia with the power of tariff regulation in the sphere this was done by the Federal Tariff Service before its abolishment , as well as in the sphere of state defense order earlier this authority belonged to the Federal Service of Defense Order.
As far as the activity of these entities among others falls under the tariff regulation, FAS Russia will be granted with the authority in this sphere and provided the service with additional lever of control and pressure over these subjects.
For example, recently FAS has been focused on the companies istock. The result of such focus became initiation by the antimonopoly authority of a few proceedings toward stevedores and operators of rolling stock. Cu rrently FAS Russia forms a sustainable practice of antimonopoly regulation application in those product markets where individual dominant entity is absent. For these purposes, FAS develops and institutes a collective dominant position against a few entities for example, a case against cellular mobile operators.
The recent a mendments to the legislation still further shift the focus of the antimonopoly authority from smalland medium-sized business to the bigger enterprises. Frequently, confrontation between FAS Russia and the big companies passes in the sphere of court proceedings where more and more disputes terminate by amicable agreement. It is also important to note the tendency, connected with the increase in control of the regional authorities, who in one form or another provide some entities with help in prejudicing against the interests of the others.
Therewith the antimonopoly authority encourages and in every way promotes the ideas of development and integration of an antimonopoly compliance system. Cu rrently t here is much d iscussion on a mend ment s i n different stages to the legislation that will a l low compa nies to avoid or sufficiently l i m it t h e l i a bi l it y for a nt i monopoly legislation breaches if a company introduces and applies an effective antimonopoly compliance system.
Su m m a r i z i n g t h e above, it should be noted that currently the dialogue between the antimonopoly authority and the entrepreneur c om mu n it y h a s b eg u n t o i m prove. At the expense of mutual concession, t h is d i a log ue g radu a l ly lead s to a n establishment of balance between the i nterests of t he m ajor bu si ness a nd the necessity to support a nd develop competition.
We may see a tendency to limit governmental interference in the commercial activity of companies due to a formation of an antimonopoly leg isl at ion cu lt u re t h at, i n t he end , br i ngs i mprovement to t he economy and increases investment attractiveness in Russia. I have had to insist on having some printed rushes. I told the producer that I wouldn't do the film unless I could have a percentage of the work on film.
The tendency is, of course, to have only DVD rushes, but, personally, I think it a mistake not to screen some of the work, if only to make sure that there isn't a technical problem, focus, camera, etc, and I, myself, need to keep in touch with my own work, by seeing it on a regular basis.
Our laboratory is LTC, and we are shooting the film in super 35, in scope format. This is a first for me, as I have always shot in anamorphic when looking for this format, but as we are going to do a digital grade, and as we have to shoot in Fontainebleau forest for over two weeks of night work, I thought that super 35mm would be the best solution to the problems which I anticipate at the end of the schedule, problems of aperture, and depth-of-field, with large vistas of night time forest to light.
I am operating the movie, though I was asked if I wouldn't like to have an operator. I have worked this way for quite a number of years, except for the odd large budget American film, when I prefer to work with an operator. I don't propose to enter into an explanation of why I prefer to work this way, except to say that I feel most comfortable like that, and have worked in this manner on all the Cronenberg films, as well as quite a few others. We are about to start the studio section of the film, followed by a number of location interiors around Paris.
The studios which I knew a few years ago have all disappeared, and our "studio", apart from being rather far outside the city, is an old factory, with all the disadvantages and difficulties of a location - poor for sound, and no real rigging facilities. However, I am enjoying the experience of shooting this film. Baz Irvine shot his first feature this Summer, The Lives of the Saints, and has just been offered his second feature Middletown to be directed by Brian Kirk and shooting in Northern Ireland.
Meanwhile Gavin Struthers keeps being asked back by Holby City.
If you wager on the Seahwaks -7 and they win by more than seven points, you win your bet. This is especially highlighted in soccer because matches can end in a tie, whereas an outright winner is established in almost every other sport because of overtime rules. So, if you are wondering what does mean in betting, it refers to the point spread or betting odds. In this instance, the payout would be good for every situation mainly because the teams are quite even and there are three possible outcomes compared to just two for a sport like football unless they go scoreless in overtime.
Always bear in mind that the lower number will mean a lower payout, which is the always the case when wagering on the favorite on the moneyline. For more a detailed odds explanation, you can read our best sportsbooks for beginners article here. DraftKings Symbols Meaning When it comes to American odds, decimal odds or fractional odds, they all mean the same thing no matter which sportsbook you choose to use.
For example, if you sign up for DraftKings and are interested in money line bets and want to place a straight wager on the Super Bowl, the odds will be similar to that of any other major betting site. This is the same for any bettor looking to wager on the point spreads on college football or placing a prop bet on the NFL.
We have outlined above how what the symbols mean in terms of how much money you would need to bet to win a certain amount. Moneyline Bets The moneyline wager—who will win the game or contest—is the most straightforward bet type in online sports betting. The goal of a point spread is to try to make the two teams as even as possible, accounting for the advantages and disadvantages of each team. The Rams are two-point favorites. If the Rams win , yes, they win the game, but with a -2 point spread, the game will have a score of in favor of the Buccaneers in sports betting.
How to Calculate and Bet Using American Odds While moneylines and point spreads come with every sport, contextual differences for these depend on the sport. For example, with sports like the NBA or NFL, point spread wagers will have the standard point spread betting odds of
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