Other Bets Props and Futures Some other fun bets that can be made on basketball include prop bets and futures. How To Bet News. Handicapping Your Basketball Bets When oddsmakers set the lines, they take many factors into consideration. If you have even one loss, you lose the entire bet. On the other hand the Magic must either win outright or lose by 3 or fewer points for a Magic spread bet to payout.
Unlike Bitcoin addresses, which are encoded in the user interface of all clients to include a built-in checksum to protect against mistyped addresses, Ethereum addresses are presented as raw hexadecimal without any checksum. The rationale behind that decision was that Ethereum addresses would eventually be hidden behind abstractions such as name services at higher layers of the system and that checksums should be added at higher layers if necessary.
In reality, these higher layers were developed too slowly and this design choice led to a number of problems in the early days of the ecosystem, including the loss of funds due to mistyped addresses and input validation errors. Furthermore, because Ethereum name services were developed slower than initially expected, alternative encodings were adopted very slowly by wallet developers. ICAP addresses can encode Ethereum addresses or common names registered with an Ethereum name registry.
IBAN is an international standard for identifying bank account numbers, mostly used for wire transfers. IBAN is a centralized and heavily regulated service. ICAP is a decentralized but compatible implementation for Ethereum addresses.
An IBAN consists of a string of up to 34 alphanumeric characters case-insensitive comprising a country code, checksum, and bank account identifier which is country-specific. Because this encoding fits less than the full bits of a general Ethereum address, it only works for Ethereum addresses that start with one or more zero bytes.
The advantage is that it is compatible with IBAN, in terms of the field length and checksum. Basic Same as the Direct encoding, except that it is 31 characters long. Indirect Encodes an identifier that resolves to an Ethereum address through a name registry provider. It uses 16 alphanumeric characters, comprising an asset identifier e. We can use the helpeth command-line tool to create ICAP addresses. You can tell because it is 33 characters long. If our address did not start with a zero, it would be encoded with the Basic encoding, which would be 35 characters long and invalid as an IBAN.
Tip The chances of any Ethereum address starting with a zero byte are 1 in At this time, ICAP is unfortunately only supported by a few wallets. EIP offers a backward-compatible checksum for Ethereum addresses by modifying the capitalization of the hexadecimal address.
The idea is that Ethereum addresses are case-insensitive and all wallets are supposed to accept Ethereum addresses expressed in capital or lowercase characters, without any difference in interpretation. By modifying the capitalization of the alphabetic characters in the address, we can convey a checksum that can be used to protect the integrity of the address against typing or reading mistakes.
Wallets that do not support EIP checksums simply ignore the fact that the address contains mixed capitalization, but those that do support it can validate it and detect errors with a The mixed-capitals encoding is subtle and you may not notice it at first. Some of the alphabetic A—F characters from the hexadecimal encoding alphabet are now capital, while others are lowercase. EIP is quite simple to implement.
We take the Keccak hash of the lowercase hexadecimal address. This hash acts as a digital fingerprint of the address, giving us a convenient checksum. The most commonly used GPU mining software is Ethminer. Regardless of the mining method, the blockchain must be fully synced before mining is started, otherwise the miner will build on an outdated side chain, meaning block rewards will not be recognized by the main network.
The relevant downloads and installation instructions are available from the Ethminer Github. Standalone executables are available for Linux, macOS and Windows. Using Ethminer with Geth An account to receive block rewards must first be defined. The address of the account is all that is required to start mining - the mining rewards will be credited to that address. This can be an existing address or one that is newly created by Geth.
In order to begin mining, Ethminer must be run and connected to Geth in a new terminal. If using OpenCL and the default for ethminer does not work, specifying the device using the --opencl--device X command is a common fix. X is an integer 1, 2, 3 etc. To check the GPU mining hashrate, check the logs ethminer displays to its terminal.
More verbose logs can be configured using -v and a value between The Ethash algorithm is memory-hard and requires a large dataset to be loaded into memory. The error message Error GPU mining. GPU memory fragmentation? Unless it is specifically instructed to mine, it acts only as a node, not a miner.
Geth starts as a CPU miner if the --mine flag is provided.
Ethereum Blockchain The Ethereum ledger provides database storage of all active accounts enabled by a Patricia tree database. The latter is a specialized derivative of a Merkle tree storing various keys and values. Each account includes stored data of its nonce, balance, code hash, and storage root. Ethereum VM The Ethereum blockchain functions with a native coding language. It also uses a consensus-based VM virtual machine , executed worldwide.
EVM is a protocol handling internal states and computational processes. EVM is similar to a large computational machine. It maintains a high number of accounts that interact with each other in a decentralized manner. Contract This is an account that has its own code, and it is controlled by a code. However, it is possible to trigger actions by sending external transactions to motion the process. For instance, if you need to execute a transaction to another EOA, you can transfer some Ethers to do so.
However, if the transaction needs to appear in a contract, this contract will activate and run the code by itself. Codes can read and write according to their internal storage. They can read incoming messages and send them between contracts to trigger a reverse-execution process.
Once the activity stops, the process of execution ceases, as well, until awakened by further transactions. The purpose of the contracts is to: manage data storage for contracts and external sources function as an external account. This means providing complex access by forwarding incoming messages between destinations maintain current contracts and user relationships, such as escrow or various insurance types function as a library by providing software functions to contracts Interaction between contracts happens due to calling activity and message-sending.
These messages include details on Ether quantity, data byte-array, and participant addresses. As the contract receives these details, it can return specific information and functions exactly like a function call. Nodes Nodes are used in order to read and write on the blockchain, which one has to download entirely in advance.
For this, nodes commonly use the VM. Nodes receive information, conduct certain operations with it, and then provide an output. Miners Ethereum miners are network nodes that mine create and process new blocks on the chain. Miners verify transactions within blocks to add them to the public blockchain ledger. They have to reach the consensus relative to the history of transactions. Consensus prevents fraud and deceitful behavior like double spending, for instance.
In detail, it is necessary to run specific header metadata of a block with a hash function. This function provides a fixed string of random-looking numbers and letters. If the nonce value shows changes, there can be an impact on the output value of the hash. If miners spot a hash matching the intended target, they receive an Ether reward. Then, they can broadcast the block for validation.
If another miner detects a matching hash, the first one stops working on the block and continues with the next one. They receive the above-mentioned ETH rewards for a solution. Due to this algorithm, all miners receive incentives to validate block data and ensure trust in the blockchain. Gas In order to process transactions on the Ethereum blockchain, participants have to pay fees. They are determined in Ethers. Fees are charged for computational actions called by participants in order to execute transactions.
Python Pyethapp is a Python-based client implementing the Ethereum crypto economic state machine. It can be used with extension. It is meant to be very simple and minimalistic: essentially, just a tiny wrapper over coding in EVM directly. You can use LLL if you prefer close-to-the-metal optimizations. Viper Viper is a smart-contract development language built with the goals of providing increased security, language and compiler simplicity, and auditability.
In practice, Solidity is the most widespread programming language for Ethereum smart contracts. Although there are several other official recommendations, like LLL or Viper, they are limited to particular preferences. This is made possible due to the smart contract functionality that the Ethereum platform possesses. The native asset for the Ethereum blockchain is ether, which functions as a fee every time a computation is made on the Ethereum network.
Underpinning Ethereum is the Ethereum algorithm for proof of work mining, which is the Ethash hashing algorithm. This process requires a miner to retrieve data from a block header to form an input, and then repeatedly hash that input using a cryptographic hashing algorithm until an output hash value of a fixed length is produced. Miners hash variations of the input data by including a nonce. The nonce is an arbitrary number that varies the input data such that the correct output that allows the miner to add a new block to the blockchain can be found.
The Ethereum algorithm, Ethash, is the hashing algorithm that is used in this proof of work mining process. The fixed output that is produced during the hashing process, in order for a node to add a block to the Ethereum blockchain, must be a value that is below a certain threshold.
This is known as network difficulty and it involves the automatic increasing or decreasing of this threshold. The network difficulty functionality exists so that the rate at which blocks are mined on the Ethereum network can be controlled. If miners are producing a lot of hash values that fall below the threshold set by the network meaning that a lot of blocks are being mined , then the network will increase the network difficulty i. This means that the number of legitimate hash values capable of being discovered also falls.
Oppositely, if the rate of blocks being found on the network decreases, then the network threshold will rise to generate a higher number of valid hashes that can be found.
Feb 7, · 5 Answers. You can try Nethereum, it's available on GitHub. Try it on the Nethereum Playground. It provides all the generic Web3 functionality to interact with . Jan 4, · evmone Public. Fast Ethereum Virtual Machine implementation. C++ Apache 22 (2 issues need help) 24 Updated on Jan 4. aleth Public archive. Aleth – Ethereum . Algorand (ALGO) token information and tracker. The ALGO coin total supply is 69 transactions and 51 holders.