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Ethereum swarm whisper how to buy tron with ethereum

Ethereum swarm whisper

It was more than 5 years ago. Now, in Swarm is more or less feature complete, and started its own long journey as an autonomous project. In this article, I will show you why Swarm is an exciting project, and what unique features like feeds and direct messaging make it different from other storage solutions.

Ethereum Swarm is basically a giant DHT. When you store anything in Swarm, it splits it into 4K chunks. These chunks are addressable by the chunk hash and stored on nodes that are the nearest to the chunk address. Every chunk is stored redundantly on the 4 nearest nodes. The network structure of Swarm is stable and highly optimized for the DHT. Because of this optimized network structure, the content retrieval in Swarm is really efficient.

Swarm calls this Kademlia connectivity. If you need a more detailed explanation of the network structure, you can read about it in the Book of Swarm. Swarm is based on libp2p underlay network , but nodes are addressed by its Ethereum address overlay network. The signature method is also the same that is used by Ethereum, and signatures can be easily validated by smart contracts.

This makes Swarm an ideal storage solution for Ethereum. Anonymity is one of the key points of Swarm. Every node knows only a limited number of its neighbors because of Kademlia connectivity. If a chunk is not found on any neighbor they ask their neighbors, etc. Swarm calls this method forwarding Kademlia. Bandwidth is a scarce resource in Swarm, because of this when you retrieve a chunk, you have to pay a small amount of BZZ the native token of SWarm for the retrieval.

It is something like gas cost on the Ethereum network. If your neighbor has the chunk, it can keep the BZZ. If not, it has to pay one of its neighbors for it. This solution incentivizes the nodes to cache frequently asked contents and keep them near to the customers. It makes Swarm a really efficient CDN. Swarm would be an ideal solution for decentralized multimedia streaming. Swarm has a very interesting solution for accounting. It is something like Lightning Network , where microtransactions happen off-chain.

Here is a high-level architecture diagram showing these three in action: Whisper is an Ethereum P2P communication protocol that allows messaging between DApps. It provides a simple API that we can use to send an encrypted message through the Ethereum blockchain and receive and decrypted messages with the hash key. It can be used for DApps publish-subscribe coordination signaling and building secure, untraceable decentralized communication. Whisper protocol Whisper currently uses the ssh protocol string of devp2p.

When sending an encrypted message, the message content can be encrypted by default either asymmetrically or symmetrically. Asymmetric cryptography , also known as public key cryptography, uses public and private keys to encrypt and decrypt data.

One key is public and it is shared with everyone. The other is a private key; only the owner can see or access private key information. When encrypting the Whisper message, it uses the standard Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme with the SECPk1 public key to encrypt a message; the other key is used for decryption.

Symmetric cryptography also known as the secret key , on the other hand, uses the hash key with the AES GCM algorithm with a random bit nonce for both encryption and decryption. It typically facilitates one-to-many messages. The sender and receiver use the same symmetric key to encrypt and decrypt the message. Whisper envelopes Whisper envelopes contain the encrypted payload and some metadata in plain format. It is sent and received by Whisper nodes. Here is the structure of the envelope.

It contains topic-related information, as shown in the following diagram: Each field in the Whisper envelope contains important information for the message: Version: This can be up to 4 bytes currently one byte containing zero and indicates the encryption method. If the Version is higher than the current one, the envelope cannot be decrypted, and therefore can only be forwarded to the peers.

Expiry: This is the message expiry time Unix time in seconds. etheric useful

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